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last update time 2022/09/15
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:::* Home > Professor > Long-Liu Lin

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Long-Liu Lin 教授近照 
Title: Professor
Education: Ph.D., University of Cape Town
Research Area: Biochemistry
Tel: 886-5-271-7969

e-mail: llin@mail.ncyu.edu.tw  

Research Interests:

My research interest has been focused on elucidating the mechanism of action and the structure-function relationship of enzymes. One ongoing project is to develop an effective enzymatic method for synthesizing theanine from glutamine and ethylamine by Escherichia coli g g -glutamyltranspeptidase ( g -GGT). Moreover, the conserved residues of recombinant E. coli g -GGT have been replaced with other amino acids by site-directed mutagenesis. The preliminary results show that some of the residues are involved in the autocatalytical processing of the enzyme. We also cloned and expressed other g -GGTs from Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. kaustophilus in recombinant E. coli . The overproduced enzymes have great potential for the bioconversion of medical agents. The specific aims include identifying phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization of a thermostable dihydropyrimidinase from Bacillus sp. TS-23, analyzing the functions of the conserved amino acids of microbial leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs), and recovering the industrial important enzymes by adsorption-elution on raw starch. The other ongoing project is to study the structure-function relationship of B. stearothermophilus LAP. To study the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, B. stearothermophilus LAP is subjected to structural analysis by X-ray crystallography and to functional analysis by mutagenesis. By combing the data from both approaches, we hope that the molecular action of LAP can be appreciated in the near future. 

Publications:
  1. Lin, M. G., Chi, M. C., Chen, Y. Y., Wang, T. F., Lo, H. F*., Lin, L. L*. (2016) Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved Asn450 residue of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 91:416-425.
  2. Wang, C. H., Huang, C. C., Lin, L. L., Chen, W*. (2016) The effect of disulfide bonds on protein folding, unfolding, and misfolding investigated by FT–Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4935.
  3. Lo, H. F., Chen, B. E., Lin, M. G., Chi, M. C., Wang, T. F*., Lin, L. L*. (2016) Gene expression and molecular characterization of a chaperone protein HtpG from Bacillus licheniformis. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 85:179-191.
  4. Lin, M. G., Wang, T. F., Chen, Y. Y., Chi, M. C*., Lin, L. L*. (2016) Effects of organic co-solvents on catalytic activity and structural stability of three different Bacillus enzymes. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 59:126-131.
  5. Lin, M. G., Chi, M. C., Naveen, V., Li, Y. C., Lin, L. L*., Hsiao, C. D*. (2016) Bacillus licheniformis trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase structures suggest keys to substrate specificity. Acta Crystallographica D72:59-70. 
  6. Pica, A., Chi, M. C., D’Ischia, M., Chen, Y. Y., Lin, L. L., Merlino, A*. (2016) The maturation mechanism of γ-glutamyltranspeptidases: insights from the crystal structure of a precursor mimic of the enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Proteins and Proteomics 1864:195-203.
  7. Chen, Y. Y., Lo, H. F., Wang, T. F., Lin, M. G., Lin, L. L*., Chi, M. C*. (2015) Enzymatic synthesis of γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound from garlic, by Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 75-76:18-24.
  8. Liao, H. F*., Wu, D. R., Dai, J. L., Chi, M. C., Lin, L. L*. (2015) Immunomodulatory activity of the polysaccharide-rich extract from edible cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Medical Science 3(4):112-123.
  9. Chen, J. H., Chi, M. C., Lin, M. G., Lin, L. L*., Wang, T. F. (2015) Beneficial effect of sugar osmolytes on the refolding of guanidine hydrochloride-denatured trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase from Bacillus licheniformis. BioMed Research International Article ID 806847.
  10. Lin, M. G., Chen, B. E., Chi, M. C., Wang, T. F., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2015) Tryptophan substitution at three specific phenylalanine locations of Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor GrpE: structural and functional effects. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 72:724-731.
  11. Chi, M. C., Lo, Y. H., Chen, Y. Y., Lin, L. L*., Merlino, A*. (2014) γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase architecture: effect of extra sequence deletion on autoprocessing, structure and stability of the protein from Bacillus licheniformis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Proteins and Proteomics 1844:2290-2297.
  12. Lin, L. L., Chen, Y. Y., Chi, M. C., Merlino, A*. (2014) Low resolution X-ray structure of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis: opened active site cleft and a cluster of acid residues potentially involved in the recognition of a metal ion. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics 1844:1523-1529
  13. Juang, T. Y*., Kan, S. J., Chen, Y. Y., Tsai, Y. L., Lin, M. G., Lin, L. L*. (2014) Preparation of surface-functionized hyperbranched poly(amido acids) magnetic nanocarriers for the covalent immobilization of a bacterial γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Molecules 19:4997-5012. 
  14. Ong, P. L., Chuang, T. T., Wang, T. F., Lin, L. L*. (2014) Identification of critical amino acid residues for chloride binding of Bacillus licheniformis trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase. Biologia 69(1):1-9. 
  15. Wang, T. F., Lin, M. G., Lo, H. F., Chi, M. C., Lin, L. L*. (2014) Biophysical characterization of a recombinant aminopeptidase II from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. Journal of Biological Physics 40:25-40.
  16. Chi, M. C., Lin, M. G., Wang, T. F., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2013) Influence of asparagine mutations on enzymatic activity and thermostability of a recombinant α-amylase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. Journal of Enzyme Research 4:46-49
  17. Chen, Y. Y., Tsai, M. G., Chi, M. C., Wang, T. F*., Lin, L. L*. (2013) Covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase on aldehyde-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14:4613-4628.
  18. Lin, L. L., Merlino, A*. (2013) Heterogeneous nucleation helps the search for initial crystallization conditions of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis. Acta Crystallographica F69:669-672.
  19. Lo, H. F*., Chen, Y. Z., Lin, L. L*. (2013) Simultaneous purification and immobilization of histidine-tagged Bacillus licheniformis aldehyde dehydrogenase. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 7:21-29.
  20. Chen, B. E., Lin, M. G., Lo, H. F., Wang, T. F., Chi, M. C*., Lin, L. L*. (2013) Introduction of a unique tryptophan residue into various positions of Bacillus licheniformis DnaK. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 52:231-243.
  21. Chi, M. C., Chen, Y. Y., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Experimental evidence for the involvement of amino acid residue Glu398 in the autocatalytic processing of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. FEBS Open Bio 2:298-304.
  22. Hu, H. Y., Yang, J. C., Chen, J. H., Chi, M. C*., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Enzymatic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase fused to N-terminally truncated forms of Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 50:86-94.
  23. Lee, Y. C*., Lin, D. T., Chen, H. L., Lo, H. F., Hu, H. Y., Hsiao, N. W., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Characterization of glycine substitution mutations within the NAD+-binding site of Bacillus licheniformis aldehyde dehydrogenase. Protein & Peptide Letters 19: 1183-1193.
  24. Chen, Y. H., Chi, M. C., Wang, T. F., Chen, J. C., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and their use for immobilization of C-terminally lysine-tagged Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 166:1711-1722.
  25. Chuang, T. T., Ong, P. L., Wang, T. F., Huang, H. B., Chi, M. C., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Molecular characterization of a novel trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase, TreA, from Bacillus licheniformis. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 50:459-470.
  26. Chi, M. C., Wu, T. J., Chen, H. L., Lo, H. F*., Lin, L. L*. (2012) Counteraction of temperature- and chemical-induced denaturation of a recombinant Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase by sorbitol. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 39: 1779-1788.
  27. Lee, Y. C., Lin, D. T., Ong, P. L., Chen, H. L., Lo, H. F*., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Contribution of conserved Glu255 and Cys289 residues to catalytic activity of a recombinant aldehyde dehydrogenase from Bacillus licheniformis. Biochemistry-Moscow 76:1233-1241.
  28. Lo, H. F., Su, J. Y., Chen, H. L., Chen, J.C., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Biophysical studies of a NAD(P)+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase from Bacillus licheniformis. European Biophysics Journal 40:1131-1142.
  29. Hung, C. P., Yang, J. C., Chen, J. H., Chi, M. C., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Unfolding analysis of the mature and unprocessed forms of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Journal of Biological Physics 37:463-475.
  30. Chen, H. L., Lo, H. F*., Chang, C. T., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Substrate specificity and kinetic characterization of a recombinant dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase from Escherichia coli novablue. Research Journal of Microbiology 6(4):410-417.
  31. Yang, J.C., Liang, W. C., Chen, Y. Y., Chi, M. C., Lo, H. F., Chen, H. L., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Biophysical characterization of Bacillus licheniformis and Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidases: a comparative analysis. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 48:414-422.
  32. Lin, M. G., Liang, W. C., Chen, B. E., Chou, W.M., Lin, L. L*. (2011) Involvement of residues Asp8, Asn13, Glu145, Asp168, and Thr173 in the chaperone activity of a recombinant DnaK from Bacillus licheniformis. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 20:29-42. 
  33. Chi, M. C., Wu, D. R., Chuang, T. T., Chen, H. L., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2010) Biophysical characterization of a recombinant α-amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp.. TS-23. The Protein Journal 29:572-582. 
  34. Tsai, M. Y., Chang, W. H., Liang, J. Y., Lin, L. L., Chang, G. C., Chang, H. P*. (2010) Essential covalent linkage between the chymotrypsin-like domain and the extra domain of the SARS-CoV main protease. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 149(3):349-358.
  35. Chen, Y. H., Chuang, L. Y., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L.*, Chi, M. C*. (2010). Mutational analysis of the proposed calcium-binding aspartates of a truncated α-amylase from Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. Annals of microbiology 60(2):307-315.
  36. Lin, M. G., Chen, B. E., Liang, W. C., Chou, W. M., Kuo, L. Y., Lin, L. L*. (2010) Site-saturation mutagenesis of leucine 134 of Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor GrpE reveals the importance of this residue to the co-chaperone activity. The Protein Journal 29:365-372.
  37. Huang, C. L., Cheng, W. C., Yang, J. C., Chi, M. C., Chen, J. H., Lin, H. P., Lin, L. L*. (2010). Preparation of carboxylated magnetic particles for the efficient immobilization of C-terminally lysine-tagged Bacillus stearothermophilus aminopeptidase II. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 37:717-725.
  38. Chi, M. C., Chen, A. H., Wu, D. R., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2010). Engineering of a truncated α-amylase of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 for the simultaneous improvement of thermal and oxidative stabilities. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 109:531-538.
  39. Chang, H. P., Liang, W. C., Lyu, R. C., Chi, M. C., Wang, T. F., Su, K. L., Hung, H. C., Lin, L. L*. (2010) Effects of C-terminal truncation on the autocatalytic processing of a recombinant γ-glutamyltranspeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis. Biochemistry-Moscow 75(7):919-929. 
  40. Chi, M. C., Chang, H. P., Chang, G. G., Wang, T. F., Huang, H. B., Lin, L. L*. (2010). Biophysical properties of a recombinant leucyl aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus. Biochemistry-Moscow 75(5):642-647.
  41. Liang, W. C., Lin, M. G., Chi, M. C., Chang, H. P., Lin, L. L*. (2009). Residues Leu52 and Leu134 are important for the functionality of a nucleotide exchange factor GrpE from Bacillus licheniformis. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 45:352-358. 
  42. Lyu, R. C., Hu, H. Y., Kuo, L. Y., Lo, H. F., Ong, P. L., Chang, H. P., Lin, L. L*. (2009). Role of the conserved Thr399 and Thr417 residues of a recombinant Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase as evaluated by mutational analysis. Current Microbiology 59:101-106. 
  43. Liang, W. C., Lin, M. G., Hu, H. Y., Lo, H. F., Chang, H. P., Lin, L. L*. (2009). Deletion analysis of the C-terminal region of a molecular chaperone DnaK from Bacillus licheniformis. Archives of Microbiology 191:583-593. 
  44. Lo, H. F., Hu, H. Y., Hung, C. P., Chen, S. C., Lin, L. L*. (2009). Cobalt-chelated magnetic particles for one-step purification and immobilization of His6-tagged Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Biocatalysis & Biotransfomation 27 (5-6):318-327.
  45. Lo, C. K., Kao, C. H., Wang, W. C., Wu, H. M., Hsu, W. H., Lin, L. L*., Hu, H. Y*. (2009). Engineering of the critical residues at the stereochemistry-gate loops of Brevibacillus agri dihydropyrimidinase for the production of L-homophenylaalnine. Process Biochemistry 44:309-315.
  46. Chen, H. L., Chang, C. T., Lin, L. L., Li, T. Y., Lo, H. F*. (2009). The dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli novablue: overproduction and molecular characterization of the recombinant enzyme. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 25:323-330. 
  47. Liang, W. C, Wang, X. H., Lin, M. G., Chang, H. P., Lin, L. L*. (2009). A 70-kDa molecular chaperone, DnaK, from the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis: gene cloning, purification, and molecular characterization of the recombinant protein. Indian Journal of Microbiology 49:151-160. 
  48. Hsu, W. H., Ong, P. L., Chen, S. C., Lin, L. L*. (2009). Contribution of Ser463 residue to the enzymatic and processing activities of Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics 46:281-288. 
  49. Chi, M. C., Ong, P. L., Hsu, W. H., Chen, Y. H., Huang, H. B*., Lin, L. L*. (2008). Role of the invariant Asn345 and Asn435 residues in a leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis. Intionational Journal of Biological Macromolecules 43:481-487. 
  50. Lin, L. L.*, Yang, L. Y., Hu, H. Y., Lo, H. F. (2008). Influence of N-terminal truncations on the functional expression of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in recombinant Escherichia coli. Current Microbiology 57:603-608. 
  51. Lin, L. L.*, Chen, Y. P., Yang, J. C., Hua, Y. W., Wang, W. C., Kuo, L. Y., (2008). Significance of the conserved Tyr352 and Asp380 residues in the catalytic activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus aminopeptidase II as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Protein Journal 27:215-222.
  52. Lin, L. L, Huang, C. C., Lo, H. F*. (2008). Impact of Arg210-Ser211 deletion on thermostability of a truncated Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase. Process Biochemistry 43:559-565. 
  53. Lo, H. F., Chou, W. M., Chen, P. J., Lin, L. L*. (2008). Influence of signal-peptide truncations on the functional expression of Escherichia coli novablue γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Journal of Basic Microbiology 48: 260-268. 
  54. Hung, C. P., Lo, H. F., Hsu, W. H., Chen, S. C., Lin, L. L*. (2008). Immobilization of Escherichia coli novablue γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in Ca-alginate-k-carrageenan beads. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 150: 157-170. 
  55. Wu, C. L., Chen, Y. P., Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L*. (2008). Characterization of lysine-tagged Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II immobilized onto carboxylated gold nanoparticles. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 54:83-89. 
  56. Chi, M. C., Liu, J. S., Wang, W. C., Lin, L. L.*, Huang, H. B*. (2008). Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved Ala348 and Gly350 residues at the putative active site of Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase. Biochimie 90:811-819. 
  57. Ong, P. L., Yao, Y. F., Weng, Y. M., Hsu, W. H., Lin, L. L*. (2008). Residues Arg114 and Arg337 are critical for the proper function of Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communication 366:294-300. 
  58. Lin, L. L., Chen, S. H., Huang, C. C., Lo, H. F*. (2008). Glutamic acid 219 is critical for the thermostability of a truncated α-amylase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24:619-626. 
  59. Chi, M. C., Lu, R. Q., Lin, L. L*, Huang, H. B*. (2008). Characterization of Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase immobilized in Ca alginate/k-carrageenan beads. Biochemical Engineering Journal 39: 376-382. 
  60. Lo, H. F., Lin, L. L.*, Chen, P. J., Chou, W. M*. (2007). Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved Thr407, Asp433, and Met464 residues in the small subunit of Escherichia coli γ-glutamyltranspeptidase. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics 44:197-203.
  61. Lin, L. L., Chen, M. H., Chien. H. R., Kan, S. C., Hu, H. Y.*, Hsu, W. H*. (2007). Characterization of a bifunctional aminoacylase/carboxypeptidase from radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. Journal of Biotechnology 128: 322-334. 
  62. Hwang, G.Y., L.Y. Kuo, M.R. Tsai, S.L. Yang, and L.L. Lin.* 2005. Histidines 345 and 378 of Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II are essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 87: 355-359. 
  63. Hua, Y.W., M.C. Chi, H.F. Lo, L.Y. Ku, and L.L. Lin.* 2005. Adsorption-elution purification of the chimeric Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II with raw-starch-binding activity. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21: 689-694. 
  64. Lo, H.F., Y.H. Chen, N.M. Hsiao, H.L. Chen, H.Y. Hu, W.H. Hsu, and L.L. Lin. * 2005. Stabilization of truncated Bacillus sp. strain TS-23  α-amylase by replacing histidine 436 with aspartate. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21:411-416. 
  65. Liao, Y.H., C.H. Wang, C.Y. Tseng, H.L. Chen, L.L. Lin , and W. Chen. 2004. Compositional and conformational analysis of yam proteins by near infrared Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 8190-8196. 
  66. Chi, M.C., W.M. Chou, C.H. Wang, W. Chen, W.H. Hsu, and L.L. Lin.* 2004. Generating oxidation-resistant variants of Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase by substitution of the critical methionine residues with leucine. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 86: 355-362.
  67. Chi, M.C., W.M. Chou, W.H. Hsu, and L.L. Lin.* 2004. Identification of amino acid residues essential for catalytic reaction of Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68:1794-1797.
  68. Hua, Y.W., M.C. Chi, L.Y. Kuo, and L.L. Lin. * 2004. Fusion of Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II with the raw starch-binding domain of Bacillus sp strain TS-23 α-amylase generates a chimeric enzyme with the thermostability and catalytic efficiency. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 31: 273-277. 
  69. Kuo, L.Y., G.Y. Hwang, S.L. Yang, R.H. Chen, W.L. Chen, and L.L. Lin. * 2004. Inactivation of Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II by hydrogen peroxide and site-directed mutagenesis of the methionine residues on the enzyme. The Protein J. 23: 295-302. 
  70. Hsu, S.K., L.L. Lin , H.H. Lo, and W.H. Hsu.* 2004. Mutational analysis of feedback inhibition and catalytic sites of prephenate dehydratase from Corynebacterium glutamicum . Arch. Microbiol. 181: 237-244. 
  71. Lai, E.Y.C., C.C. Chyau, J.L. Mau, C.C. Chen, Y.J. Lai, C.F. Shih, and L.L. Lin. * 2004. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of Curcuma zedoaria. The Am. J. Chin. Med. 32: 281-290. 
  72. Lin, L.L. , C.P. Wu, M.C. Chi, W.M. Chou, H.Y. Hu, and W.H. Hsu. 2004. A thermostable leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC 11223. Extremophiles 8: 79-87. 
  73. Lo, F.H., W.Y. Chiang, M.C. Chi, H.Y. Hu, and L.L. Lin. * 2004. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved threonine, tryptophan, and arginine residues in the raw starch-binding domain of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase. Curr. Microbiol. 48: 280-284. 
  74. Chang, C.T., F.H. Lo, M.C. Chi, W.H. Hsu, and L.L. Lin. * 2003. Identification of essential histidine residues in a recombinant α-amylase of thermophilic and alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. Extremophiles 7: 505-509. 
  75. Lin, L.L. *, H.F. Lo, M.C. Chi, and K.L. Ku. 2003. Functional expression of the raw starch-binding domain of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase in recombinant Escherichia coli . Starch/Starke 55:197-202. 
  76. Kuo, L.Y., G.Y. Hwang, Y.J. Lai, S.L. Yang, and L.L. Lin. * 2003. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant leucine aminopeptidase II of Bacillus stearothermophilus . Curr. Microbiol. 47: 40-45. 
  77. Lin, L.L.*, H.F. Lo, W.Y. Chiang, H.Y. Hu, W.H. Hsu, and C.T. Chang. 2003. Replacement of methionine 208 in a truncated Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase with oxidation-resistant leucine enhances its resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Curr. Microbiol. 46: 211-216. 
  78. Lo, F.H., L.L. Lin *, W.Y. Chiang, M.C. Chi, W.H. Hsu, and C.T. Chang. 2002. Deletion analysis of the C-terminal region of the α-amylase of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. Arch. Microbiol. 178: 115-123.
  79. Lin, L.L. *, H.F. Lo, J.N. Chen, K.L. Ku, and W.H. Hsu. 2002. Isolation of a recombinant Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase by adsorption-elution on raw starch. Starch/Starke 54: 338-342. 
  80. Chien, HR, L.L. Lin , S.H. Chao, C.C. Chen, W.C. Wang, C.Y. Shaw, Y.C. Tsai, and W.H. Hsu. 2002. Purification, characterization, and genetic analysis of a leucine aminopeptidase from Aspergillus sojae . Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1576: 119-126. 
  81. Lo, F.H., L.L. Lin* , C.C. Li, W.H. Hsu, and C.T. Chang. 2001. The N-terminal signal sequence and the last 98 amino acids are not essential for the secretion of Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase in Escherichia coli . Curr. Microbiol. 43: 170-175. 
  82. Lin, L.L. , H.R. Chien, F.H. Liao, and W.H. Hsu*. 2001. Identification of essential cysteine residues of Corynebacterium glutamicum 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase. Curr. Microbiol. 42: 426-431.
  83. Lo, F.H., L.L. Lin , S.L. Chen, W.H. Hsu, and C.T. Chang*. 2001. Enzymatic properties of a SDS-resistant Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase produced by recombinant Escherichia coli . Process Biochem. 36: 743-750.
  84. Liao, F.H., L.L. Lin , H.R. Chien, and W.H. Hsu*. 2001. Serine 187 is a crucial residue for allosteric regulation of Corynebacterium glutamicum 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 194: 59-64. 
  85. Lin, L.L., H.R. Chien, W.C. Wang, T.S. Hwang, H.M. Fu, and W.H. Hsu*. 2000. Overexpression of Trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase gene and characterization of its inactive mutants. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 27:482-491. 
  86. Ma, Y.J., L.L. Lin , H.R. Chien, and W.H. Hsu*. 2000. Efficient utilization of starch by a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing glucoamylase and isoamylase. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 31:55-59. 
  87. Hwang, T.S., H.M. Fu, L.L. Lin , and W.H. Hsu*. 2000. High-level expression of Trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase in Escherichia coli using lactose as inducer. Biotechnol. Lett. 22:655-658.
  88. Ju, S.S., L.L. Lin , H.R. Chien, and W.H. Hsu*. 2000. Substitution of the critical methionine residues in Trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase with leucine enhances its resistance to hydrogen peroxide. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186:215-219.
  89. Lin, L.L. , W.C. Wang, S. S. Ju, H.R. Chien, and W.H. Hsu*. 1999. The role of a conserved histidine residue, His-324, in Trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 176:443-448. 
  90. Chou, C.C.*, L.L. Lin , and K.T. Chung. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season. Intl. J. Food Microbiol. 48:125-130. 
  91. Ju, S.S., L.L. Lin , W.C. Wang, and W.H. Hsu*. 1998. A conserved aspartate is essential for FAD binding and catalysis in the D-amino acid oxidase from Trigonopsis variabilis . FEBS Lett. 436:119-122. 
  92. Chen P.H., L.L. Lin , and W.H. Hsu*. 1998. Expression of Pseudomonas amyloderamosa isoamylase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Biotechnol. Lett. 20:735-739. 
  93. Lin, L.L. , Y.J. Ma, H.R. Chien, and W.H. Hsu*. 1998. Construction of an amylolytic yeast by multiple integration of an Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 23:360-365. 
  94. Lin, L.L. , C.C. Chyan, and W.H. Hsu*. 1998. Production and properties of a raw-starch-degrading amylase from the thermophilic and alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. TS-23. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 28:61-68.
  95. Lin, L.L. , and W.H. Hsu*. (1997) Lactose-induced expression of Bacillus sp. TS-23 amylase gene in Escherichia coli regulated by a T7 promoter. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24:365-368. 
  96. Lin, L.L. *, W.H. Hsu, and W.S. Chu. 1997. A gene encoding for an α-amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. TS-23 and its expression in Escherichia coli . J Appl. Microbiol. 82:325-334. 
  97. Lin, L.L. *, M.R. Tsau, and W.S. Chu. 1996. Purification and properties of a 140 kDa amylopullulanase from thermophilic and alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain TS-23. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 24:101-107 
  98. Lin, L.L. *, and W.H. Hsu. 1995. Expression of Pseudomonas amyloderamosa isoamylase gene in Escherichia coli using an inducible phage T7 expression system. Process Biochem. 30: 547-552. 
  99. Lin, L.L. *, T.Y. Fang, W.S. Chu, and W.H. Hsu. 1994. Improved elution of isoamylase adsorbed on raw starch and the preservation of purified enzyme. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 383-385. 
  100. Lin, L.L. *, M.R. Tsau, and W.S. Chu. 1994. General characteristics of thermostable pullulanases and amylases from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. TS-23. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 42: 51-56. 
  101. Wu, D.H., C.Y. Wen, L.L. Lin, W.S. Chu, and W.H. Hsu. 1994. Effect of pH on isoamylase production by Pseudomonas amyloderamosa WU5315. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19: 67-69. 
  102. Fang, T.Y., L.L. Lin , and W.H. Hsu. 1994. Recovery of isoamylase from Pseudomonas amyloderamosa by adsorption-elution on raw starch. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 16: 247-252. 
  103. Wu, D.H., C.Y. Wen, W.S. Chu, L.L. Lin , and W.H. Hsu. 1993. Selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants with enhanced isoamylase activity in Pseudomonas amyloderamosa . Biotechnol. Lett. 15: 883-888.
  104. Tsao, L.S., L.L. Lin , J.C. Chen, J.H. Chen, and W.h. Hsu. 1993. Cloning and characterization of an α-amylase gene from Streptomyces lividans . Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1171: 255-262. 
  105. Lin, L.L., and J.A. Thomson. 1991. An analysis of the extracellular xylanases and cellulases of Butyrivibrio fibriosolvens . FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 84: 197-204. 
  106. Lin, L.L., and J.A. Thomson. 1991. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a gene encoding a 73 kDa xylanase enzyme from the rumen anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c. Mol. Gen. Genet. 228: 55-61. 
  107. Lin, L.L., E. Rumbak, H. Zappe, J.A. Thomson, and D.R. Woods. 1990. Cloning, sequencing and analysis of a Butyrivibrio fibriosolvens gene encoding a β-glucosidase. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 1567-1576. 
  108. Wang, T.T., L.L. Lin , and W.H. Hsu. 1989. Cloning and expression of a Schwanniomyces occidentalis α-amylase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55: 3167-3172. 

 



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