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:::* Home > Laws and Regulations > Teacher Education Act

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 Amended 28 December 2005

Article 1
This Act is specially enacted to develop teachers for schools at the senior high school level and below and kindergartens, to augment the supply of teachers, and to advance their professional expertise.

Article 2
Teacher education shall place emphasis on developing teaching competencies and a spirit of professionalism, strengthening understanding of democracy and the rule of law, and life and moral development.

Article 3
Terms used in this Act are defined as follows:

  1. competent authority: means the Ministry of Education at the central government level, the municipal governments at the municipal level, and the county (or city) governments at the county (city) level.
  2. teacher education university: means a teacher training college or normal university or university with a teacher education-related department(s) or teacher education center
  3. pre-service teacher education courses: means the various applicable courses to be taken in accordance with this Act before undergoing teacher certification.

Article 4
The central competent authority shall establish a teacher education review committee to undertake the following matters:

  1. recommendations and consultation regarding teacher education policy.
  2. reviewing the planning of, and important development projects in, teacher education.
  3. reviewing changes to the status of, or discontinuation of, teacher training colleges and normal universities.
  4. reviewing the recognition of teacher education-related departments.
  5. reviewing the establishment of teacher education centers by universities.
  6. reviewing teacher education concentration courses.
  7. reviewing the standards for recognizing completion of pre-service teacher education courses based on academic qualifications from overseas.
  8. reviewing teacher education evaluation and guidance.
  9. other review matters related to teacher education.

The members of the committee referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include representatives of the central competent authority, teacher education universities, teachers, and impartial members of society; regulations governing the establishment of the committee shall be prescribed by the central competent authority.

Article 5
Teacher education shall be done by teacher training colleges and normal universities, and universities with teacher education-related departments or teacher education centers.

Recognition of teacher education-related departments referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be done by the central competent authority.

Universities establishing teacher education centers shall require approval from the central competent authority; regulations governing the conditions and procedures for the establishment of such centers and teacher qualifications, facilities, student recruitment, curricula, term of study, and discontinuation thereof shall be prescribed by the central competent authority.

Article 6
Teacher education universities offering pre-service teacher education courses shall divide the course plans along the lines of teaching subject areas for secondary schools, elementary schools, kindergartens, and special education schools (or classes), and submit the plans to the central competent authority for approval before implementation.

To meet teaching needs, the teaching subject areas for secondary schools and elementary schools may, under the procedures in the preceding paragraph, be planned in combination as elementary-secondary school teaching subject areas.

Article 7
Teacher education includes pre-service teacher education and teacher certification.

Pre-service teacher education courses comprise an ordinary curriculum, specialized courses, education concentration courses, and an education practicum.

Teacher education universities shall draft plans for specialized courses referred to in the preceding paragraph and submit them to the central competent authority for approval.

Education concentration courses referred to in Paragraph 2 include a common curriculum that crosses teaching subject boundaries and courses in specific teaching subject areas. The education concentration courses shall be reviewed by the teacher education review committee and ratified by the central competent authority prior to implementation.

Article 8
The term of study for students taking pre-service teacher education courses shall in principle be four years, including the student's studies in his or her major department, plus an additional half-year for the practicum. A student with an outstanding performance may graduate early as provided in the University Act. However, the half-year education practicum may not be reduced.

Article 9
The admission requirements and terms of study for students in teacher education-related departments of universities shall be as provided in the University Act.

Universities with teacher education centers may screen and select currently enrolled students in the second year or higher of university and in master's and doctoral programs for enrollment in pre-service teacher education courses.

A teacher education university may, based upon actual needs and after obtaining approval from the central competent authority, recruit university graduates to enroll in at least one year of pre-service teacher education courses plus an additional half-year education practicum.

Students referred to in the preceding three paragraphs who complete the required pre-service teacher education courses with satisfactory performances shall be issued a certificate of completion of pre-service teacher education by the teacher education university.

Article 10
A person who holds educational qualifications of a university degree or higher, and who has been recognized by the central competent authority as having completed the ordinary curriculum, specialized courses, and education concentration courses under Article 7, Paragraph 2, may apply to a teacher education university to participate in a half-year education practicum. If the person performs satisfactorily, he or she shall be issued a certificate of completion of pre-service teacher education by the teacher education university.

Standards for recognition under the preceding paragraph shall be prescribed by the central competent authority.

Article 11
A person who has graduated from university and obtained a certificate of completion of pre-service teacher education under paragraph 4 of Article 9 or Paragraph 1 of the preceding article shall, after passing teacher certification, be issued a teaching certificate by the central competent authority.

The central competent authority shall prescribe regulations governing the qualifications required for teacher certification under the preceding paragraph, the procedures for registration, documents and materials required to be submitted, fees required to be paid, methods for certification review, times, admission standards, and other matters for compliance.

A person who has already obtained a teaching certificate in one of the subject areas referred to in Article 6, upon completing the ordinary curriculum, specialized courses, and education concentration courses of a pre-service education program in another subject area and obtaining a certificate, shall be issued a teaching certificate for that subject area by the central competent authority, without being duly required to undergo an education practicum and teacher certification review.

Article 12
The central competent authority handling teacher certification shall establish a teacher certification committee. When necessary, it may engage a school(s) or related agency (or institution) to handle teacher certification.

Article 13
Enrollees in teacher education programs shall be required in principle to pay tuition and fees, but government scholarships and grants shall also be provided. Students on government scholarships shall be required to do service in schools in remote or special districts after graduation.

The central competent authority shall prescribe regulations governing quotas for government scholarships and grants, limits on the duration of receipt of government scholarships by students on such scholarships, content required to be stipulated in contracts, performance and compliance obligations, handling of default, and distribution of service assignments.

Article 14
With the exception of government scholarship students, who shall be given service assignments in accordance with the preceding paragraph, persons who have obtained teaching certificates and wish to enter teaching posts shall take part in the open screening and selection of teachers held by schools or kindergartens corresponding to the certification status they have obtained.

Article 15
A teacher education university shall have a practicum and employment placement services unit to provide services relating to education practicums, job placement for graduates, and assistance services to local schools.

Assistance services to local schools as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be jointly provided through the concerted efforts of the competent authorities at all levels, teacher in-service training institutions, and schools or kindergartens.

Article 16
Schools at the senior high school level and below, kindergartens, and special education schools (or classes) shall hold full-time education practicums in cooperation with teacher education universities. The competent authorities shall supervise matters related to education practicums and give necessary funding and assistance.

Article 17
Teacher education universities may establish affiliated laboratory schools, kindergartens, or special education schools (or classes), in the same teaching subject areas that they offer, for the purposes of education practicums, experimentation, and research.

Article 18
The categories of fees that teacher education universities collect from students, and the purposes and amounts thereof, shall not go beyond the scope set down by the central competent authority, and shall be submitted to the central competent authority for approval before implementation.

Article 19
The competent authority may, by the following methods, provide in-service training for teachers of schools at the senior high school level and below and kindergarten teachers:

  1. establish teacher in-service training institutions individually or jointly.
  2. coordinate with, or engage, teacher education universities to establish various kinds of in-service training courses for teachers.
  3. have social education institutions or legal entities approved by the competent authority hold various kinds of in-service teacher training courses.

Teacher education universities referred to in Subparagraph 2 of the preceding paragraph may establish units exclusively responsible for in-service teacher training.

Regulations governing approvals under Subparagraph 3 of Paragraph 1 shall be prescribed by the central competent authority.

Article 20
For students who tested into and studied at teacher training colleges or normal universities in accordance with the Normal Education Law before amendments to this Act took effect on 9 February 1994, pre-amendment provisions shall remain applicable with respect to their obtaining of teacher certification and teaching post placement.

For students who completed teacher education courses before amendments to this Act took force, the pre-amendment provisions of this Act may, within six years from the enforcement date of the amendments to this Act, be applied to the obtaining of teacher certification thereby. However, for those complying with Articles 32 or 33 of the Regulations Governing Teacher Certification and Education Internships at the Senior Secondary School and Lower and Kindergarten Levels as amended and effective as of 29 June 2001, the provisions of those former regulations may be applied within two years from the enforcement date of the amendments to this Act.

For students who were already enrolled in and had not yet graduated from teacher education courses before amendments to this Act took force, the provisions of Article 8 and Article 11 may be applied to the obtainment of teacher certification thereby, or, within 10 years from the enforcement date of the amendments to this Act, the pre-amendment provisions of this Act maybe applied. However, for those complying with Articles 32 or 33 of the Regulations Governing Teacher Certification and Education Internships at the Senior Secondary School and Lower and Kindergarten Levels as amended and effective as of 29 June 2001, the provisions of those former regulations may be applied within six years from the enforcement date of the amendments to this Act.

Article 21
Regular substitute teachers who were enrolled in specialized two-year university in-service education programs to study pre-service teacher education courses prior to the 2000 academic year and who have obtained certificates of intern status by passing initial teacher certification may follow the provisions of Articles 32 and 33 of the Regulations Governing Teacher Certification and Education Internships at the Senior Secondary School and Lower and Kindergarten Levels as amended and effective on 29 June 2001, and, within a period of four years from the enforcement date of the amendments to this Act, may apply the provisions of those former regulations.

Teachers employed according to rules governing employment of primary and secondary school substitute teachers that meet the following requirements are exempt from taking educational practical training courses. Once passing teacher certification exams, they will be issued a teacher's certificate in their area of expertise.

  1. Teachers having taught the same subjects for at least one academic year or at least three consecutive months each year in the most recent seven years.
  2. College graduates having successfully completed pre-service teacher education cources, specialized courses and professional courses in education, with a certificate obtained.
  3. Teachers having papers issued by the schools at which they teach, proving they have undergone practical training in teaching, running a class, and managing administrative affairs and those that possess professional skills and knowledge in conducting studying activities.

The above rules are applicable from the day the Act goes into effect until July 31, 2007.

Article 22
Within three years from the enforcement of the amendment to this Act, the central competent authority, in coordination with teacher education universities, will hold education concentration courses on a special-project basis as in-service continuing education opportunities for teachers who have obtained a Certificate for Teaching in Remote or Special Districts and have continued in teaching service.

Teachers who have completed the education concentration courses in a remote or special district under the preceding paragraph may apply to the competent authority for issuance of a teaching certificate for ordinary districts, without being required to undergo certification review and take part in an education practicum.

A teacher who has obtained a Certificate for Teaching in Remote or Special Districts and has served in a teaching position(s) for a cumulative five years or more is not required to take the education concentration courses referred to in Paragraph 1, and may apply to the competent authority for issuance of a teaching certificate for ordinary districts, without being required to undergo certification review and take part in an education practicum.

Article 23
Within six years from the enforcement of the amendment to this Act, the central competent authority, in coordination with teacher education universities, will hold pre-service teacher education courses on a special-project basis as in-service continuing education opportunities for nursing instructors currently employed by a senior secondary school who were hired before the enforcement of the amendment to this Act, are university graduates and hold nursing instructor certificates issued by the central competent authority, and have continued in teaching service.

A nursing instructor referred to in the preceding paragraph who completes the required pre-service teacher education courses may satisfy the education practicum by having performed two years of teaching service, and may apply the pre-amendment provisions of this Act to obtaining a teaching certificate.

The provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall apply mutatis mutandis to nursing instructors currently employed by a junior college, college, or university who were hired before the enforcement of the amendment to this Act, are university graduates and hold nursing instructor certificates issued by the central competent authority, and have continued in teaching service.

Article 24
For personnel already engaged in kindergarten or nursery school work before enforcement of the amendment to this Act and who have continued in service, the central competent authority shall separately prescribe regulations governing matters including the qualifications required of such persons and the courses they are required to take to qualify to serve as teachers, and the recruitment of students for such courses.

Article 25
The enforcement rules to this Act shall be prescribed by the central competent authority.

Article 26
This Act shall enter into force from the date of promulgation.

The date of enforcement of any amendment to any article of this Act shall be determined by an order of the Executive Yuan.

Note: This Law is enacted in Chinese, which shall prevail in case of any discrepancy between the English translation and the Chinese original.



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